Spomeniki

#Erasums


Andrej tokrat razišče sledi polpretekle zgodovine po naši prestolnici. Spomeniki narodno-osvobodilnega boja so sicer res izhodišče njegovega raziskovanja, a spregledan ne ostane tudi spomenik posvečen Ilirskim provincam.


I think most of us who use the Internet or our smartphones also use digital maps like Google maps or Apple maps. I am using Google maps extensively to get around Ljubljana. One thing that I really found interesting is that every time I search for something, Google maps always displays is monuments from the liberation struggle of Yugoslavian antifascists from the Second world war. Modern Croatian history downplays the importance of this struggle and the general public discourse is mostly negative, although that are my personal opinion about it and I’m just basing it from reading Croatian news portals. This may be totally a wrong assumption but I have a feeling that Slovenians today honor the time spent in Yugoslavia more than other former states who are distancing themselves from their past. I’ve taken a tour around Ljubljana’s monuments and I can give some of my general opinion.

 

Social modernism is a wide term, but it is mostly associated with architecture. It is very brutalist and crude, with the goal of providing housing for its citizens instead of focusing on the aesthetics of the building itself, focusing on size and building made with bare concrete, which makes them look naked and without many decorations. For me they are peculiar because back in the 50tees and 60tees Yugoslavia was mostly a rural country with its struggles and one of the goals of the country was urbanization and industrialization. So apartment housings were built in this style all around the country. However, some important buildings for the state and arty were also built in this style, and with it more liberty was given in the design of the buildings. Ljubljana’s TR 2 and TR3 buildings on the Repubic square are the best example of the brutalism with style I can think off (In my opinion, because of the huge digital clock and the temperature measurer it looks more like something from Blade Runner or Ghost in the Shell). Today, compared to modern apartment blocks and other modern buildings, they look out of place and outdated. Some people like to ridicule them even, but back then they provided much needed housing and they served as a symbol of modernization and the states care for its people. If you are more interested in the said topic, you should check online some examples of brutalism from the Soviet Union and states that were part of the Eastern bloc. I’m providing a link to an excellent instagram account that has many examples of brutalist architecture.

 

The memorials and statues are made in the social modernism style and they serve to commemorate the fallen partisans during the war, but some of them are placed to inspire the proletariat of its constant struggle against the Bourgeoisie. Back then they presented clear messages to the people but today they serve as a memory of some other times and ideals. Some may say that it would be sensible to remove them since Slovenia lives in different times and the ideology changed, but I’m quite happy that they kept them in the end. It is part of their history after all. I think that the number of monuments compared to Zagreb is around the same, but Zagreb is double the size of Ljubljana, and a lot of them were removed after the fall of Yugoslavia. I personally liked them all but I need to address some of them. One monument today is displayed in front of the Hare Krishna center, which I find amusing and ironic. The one I found on Celovška Street is dedicated to the struggles of women working class, which is always nice to see. In socialist and communist countries women were always presented as equals to men. That was mostly true especially during the Second war where they fought side by side with men as soldiers. Of course, we need to have a monument of the globe, with its message: Workers of the world unite. In the center of Ljubljana, there is a monument to Napoleon and to the Illyrical provinces, a small part of history when most of today’s Slovenia and Croatian coast was a part of Empire of France (1809 – 1813). I remember from school how we were taught that the Illyrical provinces were very important for Croatia because the French allowed Croats to start publishing newspapers on Croatian and the Lingua Franca was no longer Italian or German, but Croatian., so it helped to develop Croatian national Identity in parts of today’s Croatia that were in the Illyical provinces. I don’t know if the same impact was in Slovenia, but I know that Ljubljana was the capital. I just found it very interesting that this statue is still here today.


Večina uporabnikov interneta oziroma pametnih telefonov uporablja tudi digitalne zemljevide ponudnikov Google in Apple. Sam precej izkoriščam Google zemljevide, saj z njimi lažje najdem kraje po Ljubljani. Zanimivo se mi zdelo, da vsakič, ko sem po zemljevidu iskal določeno točko, mi je aplikacija v bližini našla/ponujala tudi spomenike iz časov osvobodilnega boja jugoslovanskih antifašistov, iz časa druge svetovne vojne. Novejša hrvaška zgodovina podcenjuje pomembnost osvobodilnega boja in splošen javni diskurz o njem je večinoma negativen – kar je moje osebno mnenje, ki je del povzemanja pregledovanja hrvaških novičarskih portalov. Morda sem dobil popolnoma napačen vtis, a zdi se mi, da Slovenci danes sprejemajo in slavijo čas preživet v Jugoslaviji veliko bolj kot države bivše skupne države, ki se od polpretekle zgodovine distancirajo. Tokrat sem se torej odpravil na ogled po ljubljanskih spomenikih.

Socialni modernizem je precej razširjen pojem, toda v večini se povezuje z arhitekturo. Stil, po večini precej brutalen in surov je nastal s ciljem ustvarjati domovanja za svoje državljane brez fokusa na arhitekturni vidik same stavbe. Tako se je ustvaril gol videz brez vsakršnih dekoracij. Zame predstavljajo nenavadno brezizraznost iz časov 1950. in 1960., ko je večina Jugoslavije bila še pretežno kmetijska in stil predstavlja cilje urbanizacije in industrializacije države. Tako so se stanovanjska naselja v tem stilu gradila povsod po Jugoslaviji. Toda stabe, ki so za državo imele večjo vrednost, so se gradile z več svobode pri oblikovanju zunanjosti teh stab. Tako sta nastali stavbi TR2 in TR3 na Trgu republike, ki sta pravzaprav najboljši primer te brutalnosti. Po mojem mnenju zato, ker je na stavbi velikanska digitalna ura, ki meri tudi temperaturo in je videti kot nekaj iz Iztrebljevalca ali Duha iz školjke. Če ju danes primerjamo z modernimi stanovanjskim kompleksi ali ostalimi modernimi stavbami sta del drugačnih časov, a hkrati tudi brezčasna. Nekaterim ljudem so v posmeh, toda v preteklosti so ravno te soseske predstavljale rešitev stanovanjskega vprašanja in so služila kot simbol modernizacije ter odraz skrbi države za svoje državljane. Če vas zanima še kaj več o zgornji tematiki, predlagam nekaj primerov brutalne arhitekture iz Sovjetske zveze in držav, ki so bile del Vzhodnega bloga. Več o tem na sledečem instagram računu.

Spomeniki in kipi, ki so bili narejeni v stilu socialnega modernizma, so služili komememoraciji padlim partizanov med vojno, nekaj pa jih je bilo postavljenih v vzpodbudo proleteriatu pri njegovem stalnem boju proti buržuaziji. V preteklosti so predstavljali jasno sporočilo ljudem, danes pa so spomin na neke druge čase in ideale. Nekateri bi lahko rekli, da gre za občutljivo tematiko umika spomenikov, saj Slovenija sedaj živi v drugačnih časih, ideologija se je spremenila, a sem vessel, da so se na koncu koncev ohranili. Navsezadnje so le del zgodovine. Mislim, da je število spomenikov, če primerjam z Zagrebom približno enako, toda Zagreb je dvakrat večji od Ljubljane. Mnogo spomenikov je bilo po padcu Jugoslavije v Zagrebu tudi umaknjenih. Če izrazim svoje osebno mnenje, so mi všeč, še posebej nekateri izmed njih. En spomenik se danes nahaja pred stavbo, v kateri ima sedež Hare Krishna, kar je hkrati zabavno in ironično. En spomenik, ki sem ga našel na Celovški cesti je posvečen boju žena znotraj delavskega razreda, kar je vedno lepo videti. V socialističnih in komunističnih deželah so bile ženske vedno predstavljene kot enakovredne moškim. Tudi v času druge svetovne vojne so se borile ob boku moških vojakov. Seveda brez spomenika svetu z jasnim sporočilom: Delavci vsega sveta, združite se, ne gre.

V centru Ljubljane lahko najdete tudi spomenik Napoleonu in Ilirskim provincam. Spomenik je posvečen delu zgodovine, ko je bila večina današnje Slovenije in hrvaške obale del Francoskega imperija (1809-1813). Spominjam se, kako smo v šoli spoznavali, da je bil čas Ilirskih provinc za Hrvaško izjemno pomemben, saj so Francozi dopustili izdajanje časopisov v hrvaškem jeziku. Uradni jezik je tako postajala hrvaščina in ne več italijanščina in nemščina, kar je vzpodbudilo nastanek hrvaške nacionalne identitete. Ne vem ali je bil vpliv provinc v Sloveniji enak, toda vem, da je Ljubljana takrat bila prestolnica. Zanimivo se mi je zdi, da lahko spomenik, posvečen temu delu zgodovine, najdem še danes.

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