SLOVENCI V XX. STOLETJU

#Erasmus


Andrej se bo v zadnjih dveh prispevkih posvetil domačemu muzeju, saj se njegovo bivanje pri nas počasi končuje. Tokrat teče beseda o stalni razstavi Muzeja novejše zgodovine Slovenije, Slovenci v XX. stoletju.


I think it is finally time to write about the permanent exhibition of the museum I’m doing my internship at. My episode at the museum will be done at the end of this month so I think it is fair to say a word or two about the permanent exhibition of the museum itself. The Museum of National History of Slovenia covers the history of the 20th century, which means the last years of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, The Great War, The Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Second World War, Tito’s Yugoslavia and Slovenian Contemporary history from the Independence to joining EU.

You start at the beginning of the 20th century and you end with yesterday’s history. At the beginning it explains Slovenia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and jumps strait into the trenches of the Galicia and Isonzo front where many Slovenian soldiers did their job as soldiers of the Empire. I mean it literary because you need to walk through an underground trench with solider quarters and bunkers.

After that you will learn about the First Yugoslavia and the divide of Slovenian lands since a part of Slovenia ended up in the Kingdom of Italy. It is represented in a form of a big map that clearly shows all the territorial changes in the first half of the 20th century.  The Kingdom of Yugoslavia is shown mostly through the ruling Karađorđević family and the economic stagnation that the state had. The narrative is not only on Slovenian history, but the influence and the role of Slovenian people that they had in the many countries they were a part of in the 20th century, but it does not try to generalize a lot.

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The best example of that is the part about the Second World War since you can find individual stories of Slovenes on the Axis side and partisans who in the end prevailed. For military enthusiasts many weapons, uniforms and little stories about the Italians, Germans, Slovenian Home Guards and Partisans can be found and read.

The Second World War ends the first part of the exhibition. The Second part is all about Tito’s Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia after his death and the Independence, but it mentions both the good parts of it and the bad parts and I think it has a really nice approach to Slovenian history and acknowledges both the bad parts and the good parts. For example, you can find information about the Italian death camps, foibe and Goli Otok where unwanted Slovenians ended up, but it also mentions how the first “free” elections in communist Yugoslavia worked like: There were to options for voting during the first elections; a box where you voted for the Communist party and the “other” box where, in the case you voted for the “other” parties, the commissar would write your name in his book.

As for the good part, you are going to learn how Tito’s Yugoslavia was very prosperous, compared to other states before at least, until his death, and how life looked like in Yugoslavia. It mentions the urbanization, the general rise of life quality in form of entertainment, house and kitchen accessories and the general feel of freedom Yugoslavia had compared to other communist states in Europe. The famous red and black Iskra telephone I have in my apartment here (as decoration only) in Slovenia is exhibited in the museum, also one of the very first food processor. I still have at my home in Croatia which was a wedding present for my parents.

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The last 10 years of Yugoslavia are also very nice represented since the real symbol of the Communist Yugoslavia Tito died in 1980 (In Ljubljana). With no clear political symbol uniting the state, popular culture that was very similar to the western one took his role. Compared to the other communist states, Yugoslavia had a much more liberal approach to popular culture, from rock and punk music (music bands like Laibach, Azra or Električni orgazam were something that was unthinkable to exist in SSSR, Poland Hungary etc.) to western style clothing that were not available for purchase in Yugoslavia, but the population was allowed to go to the nearby city of Trieste, which was a shopping city with records, Amiga and Commodore game systems, Lewis jeans and Italian shoes. The exhibition mentions computer factories and different food brands that still exist today, like the Croatian Cedevita or Eurocrem chocolates. But it was not all fine and dandy, massive inflation, economic stagnation and the rise of nationalism in the last years of the 80tees is also covered thoroughly.

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And finally the last part of the exhibition is about free Slovenia. It’s just a lot of information about the 10 day war and Slovenia joining the European Union and Nato in 2004. It is the most boring part of the museum. I have to say that the museum does a pretty good job covering everything important in its multistate history and locals and foreigners can learn a lot about the history of the Balkans and also about Slovenian history by carefully strolling through the texts and through the exhibits. Maybe my only complain about the museum is that when it was opened, it was clearly not made for foreigners. The text and information about the exhibition and the exhibits is written on Slovenian and in a very big font, and the English information is usually near in a corner and in a much smaller one. It is clear that the English translation was added later.

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Menim, da je napočil čas, da napišem nekaj o stalni razstavi muzeja, v katerem opravljam pripravništvo. Moje pripravništvo v muzeju se zaključi s koncem tega meseca in tako mislim, da je prav, da tokrat namenim besedo ali dve stalni razstavi »mojega« muzeja. Muzej novejše zgodovine Slovenije obravnava zgodovino 20. stoletja, od zadnjih let Avstro-ogrske monarhije, Veliko vojno, kraljevino Jugoslavijo, drugo svetovno vojno, Titovo Jugoslavijo in slovensko novejšo zgodovino od samostojnosti pa vse do njenega članstva v EU.

Z ogledom boste začeli na začetku 20. stoletja, končali pa z včerajšnjimi dogodki. Na začetku dobite razlago Slovenije v Avstro-ogrski monarhiji, nato pa si ogledate približek kaverne iz Galicije ali soške fronte, kjer se je veliko slovenskih vojakov bojevalo v službi monarhije. Vidite lahko življenje vojakov v rovu in njihove življenjske razmere.

Nato se seznanite s prvo Jugoslavijo in z razdelitvijo slovenskih ozemelj, saj je del Slovenije končal pod kraljevino Italijo. Ta del je predstravljen prek velikega zemljevida, ki jasno prikazuje ozemeljske spremembe v prvi polovici 20. stoletja. Kraljevina Jugoslavija je predstavljena prek vladavine družine Karađorđević ter prek gospodarske stagnacije, s katero se je država soočala.

Zgodba razstave ne govori le o slovenski zgodovini, razlaga tudi vplive in vlogo Slovencev, ki so jo imeli v državah, katerih del so bili v 20. stoletju in tudi na splošno ne želi posploševati. Morda je najboljši primer tega prav del, kjer je predstavljena druga svetovna vojna, kjer lahko najdete zgodbe slovenskih posameznikov, ki so se pridružili silam Osi in partizanom, ki so na koncu prevladali. Vojaškim navdušencem bo v oči padlo večje število orožja, uniforme, pa tudi kratke zgodbe o Italijanih, Nemcih, slovenskih domobrancih in partizanih, ki jih lahko najdete med muzealijami in jih preberete. Z drugo svetovno vojno se zaključi prvi del razstave.

V drugem delu razstave je predstavljena Titova Jugoslavija in slovenska pot v samostojnost, omenjene pa so tako dobre kot slabe plati kar smatram za dober način predstavitve tega obdobja. Na primer, najti je mogoče podatke o italijanskih koncentracijskih taboriščih, fojbah in Golem Otoku, kjer so svojo pot končali nezaželeni Slovenci, toda predstavljen je tudi potek prvih »svobodnih« volitev v komunistični Jugoslaviji: obstajali sta namreč dve možnosti; skrinjica, kjer si volil za komunistično stranko in »druga« skrinjica, kjer pa si je lahko komisar, če si volil za »druge« zapisal tvoje ime v svojo knjižico.

Med dobrimi platmi je predstavljeno življenje v Titovi Jugoslaviji, ki je bila uspešna, če jo primerjamo z ostalimi državami, katerih del je bila Slovenija prej, vsaj do Titove smrti in tudi kakšno je bilo to življenje v Jugoslaviji. Omenjena je urbanizacija, dvig splošne kvalitete življenja v obliki zabavne kulture, gradnja hiš in kuhinjski pripomočki ter splošen občutek svobode v Jugoslaviji. Razstavljen pa je tudi slaven rdeče črn Iskrin telefon, ki ga imam tudi v stanovanju v Sloveniji, pa tudi enega prvih multipraktikov najdete med predmeti. Še vedno ga uporabljamo doma, na Hrvaškem, bil pa je podarjen mojim staršem kot poročno darilo.

Zadnje desetletje Jugoslavije je prav tako dobro predstavljeno, v tem času je simbol komunistične Jugoslavije, Tito, umrl v letu 1980 (prav v Ljubljani). Ker pravega političnega simbola, ki bi povezoval državo ni bilo več, je to vlogo prevzela popularna kultura, ki je svoj navdih črpala iz zahodnega bloka. Če primerjamo Jugoslavijo z drugimi komunističnimi državami, je ta imela veliko liberalnejši pristop k popularni kulturi, od rocka do punk glasbe (glasbene skupine kot Laibach, Azra ali Električni orgazam, če omenimo najbolj izstopajoče v političnem sistemu ZSSR, Poljske ali Madžarske ne bi mogle obstajati) do zahodnega stila oblačenja, ki sicer ni bil dostopen v jugoslovanskih trgovinah, a je bilo mogoče skočiti v italijanski Trst, nakupovalno središče s kasetami, igralniškim sistemom Amiga in Commodore, kavbojkami Lewis in italijanskimi čevlji. Razstava omenja tudi računalniška podjetja in različne prehrambene linije, ki obstajajo še danes, kot je hrvaška Cedevita in čokolade Eurocrem. Vse pa le ni bilo lepo in odlično: neverjetna inflacija, gospodarska stagnacija in vzpon nacionalizmov v zadnjih letih 1980 let so tudi omenjeni v razstavnem prostoru.

V delu, ki je posvečen že samostojni Sloveniji, najdete veliko podatkov o desetdnevni vojni v Sloveniji, ki je vstopila v Evropsko unijo in Nato v letu 2004. Ta del se mi je zdel med vsemi najbolj dolgočasen. A muzej je svoje delo opravil zelo dobro, saj je pokril vse pomembnejše dogodke, ki so se zgodili Sloveniji in Slovencem, ko so živeli v različnih državah 20. stoletja.

Domačini in tujci se lahko veliko naučijo o zgodovini Balkana kot tudi slovenski zgodovini, ko se previdno premikajo med besedili in razstavljenimi muzalijami. Morda lahko omenim eno slabost, saj se mi zdi, da – ko je bila razstava odprta – je jasno, da v prvi vrsti ni namenjena tujcem. Besedilo in različni podatki o razstavi in o muzealijah so napisani v slovenščini in v precej velikih črkah, medtem ko je angleški prevod ponavadi blizu ali nekje v kotu, črke pa postanejo premajhne. Jasno je, da je bil angleški prevod dodan kasneje.

2 Comments on “SLOVENCI V XX. STOLETJU

  1. Oblikovanje slovenskih in angleških besedil na stalni razstavi Slovenci v XX. stoletju v Muzeju novejše zgodovine Slovenije je potekalo sočasno, angleška besedila niso bila dodana kasneje. I Design of Slovene and English texts at the permanent exhibition Slovenes in XX. century in the National Museum of Contemporary Histroy was done at the same time, the English texts were not added later.

Odgovorite Katarina Jurjavčič Prekinite odgovor

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